On fire activity and carbon emissions: Doubts on transparency in corporate commitments, Indonesia Fire Free Alliance of plantation groups

18 Mar 2017: Doubts on transparency in corporate commitments, Indonesia Fire Free Alliance of plantation groups

Growth in deforestation commitments hides transparency issues By David Burrows, 17-Mar-2017 -- The number of manufacturers using one of the four key commodities linked to deforestation has increased from 67% to 71%, but a worrying number of targets have been missed or forgotten, according to a new report.

Fire Free Alliance Welcomes Malaysian Palm Oil Giants - Muhamad Al Azhari | March 16, 2017 -- The Fire Free Alliance, a voluntary multi-stakeholder platform to aid in the resolution of land and forest fires in Indonesia, has welcomed aboard Malaysian corporations Sime Darby and IOI Group, thus further extending the reach of their program across Indonesia and Malaysia. http://www.jakartaglobe.beritasatu.com/business/fire-free-alliance-welcomes-malaysian-palm-oil-giants/

22 Feb 2017: On fire activity and carbon emissions - some article and links

Cattau et al. (2016) write: “Fire activity peaks during the dry season months (August–October) both within and outside of concessions. Fire activity was higher in dry years 2014 and 2015… both within and outside of concessions... The total number of fire detections (N = 205 749) on Kalimantan and Sumatra 2012–2015 located outside of oil palm concession boundaries and within concessions boundaries. 16.6% of all the fire detections during the study period are located within oil palm concessions... A disproportionate percentage of the total fire detections (52.3%) occur on peatlands considering the percent land area in peatland (13.7%)... RSPO has the potential to reduce fires, but is currently only effective when fire likelihood is relatively low and thus fewer fires occur and are presumably more easily controllable…  in order for this mechanism to reduce fire, greater efforts may be needed to control fires in dry years and on peatlands.” The indication of fire detections so far may support the dominant narrative in the industry that attribute fires more to smallholders and small producers (in non-concession areas, see below).

Fire detections in Sumatra and Kalimantan, 2012-2015 by Cattau et al. (2016)

Looking back to the earlier 1997/98 fire-haze that drew the world’s attention to palm oil sustainability, Page et al. (2002) write: “The amount of carbon released from peat and forest fires in Indonesia during 1997: estimate that 0.19–0.23 gigatonnes (Gt) of carbon were released to the atmosphere through peat combustion, with a further 0.05 Gt released from burning of the overlying vegetation. Extrapolating these estimates to Indonesia as a whole, we estimate that between 0.81 and 2.57 Gt of carbon were released to the atmosphere in 1997 as a result of burning peat and vegetation in Indonesia. This is equivalent to 13–40% of the mean annual global carbon emissions from fossil fuels, and contributed greatly to the largest annual increase in atmospheric CO2 concentration detected since records began in 1957.” The 2014/2015 El Nino dry period is associated with the 2015 wildfires, Huijnen et al. (2016) conclude that: “With a mean emission rate of 11.3 Tg CO2 per day during Sept-Oct 2015, emissions from these fires exceeded the fossil fuel CO2 release rate of the European Union (EU28) (8.9 Tg CO2 per day). Although seasonal fires are a frequent occurrence in the human modified landscapes found in Indonesia, the extent of the 2015 fires was greatly inflated by an extended drought period associated with a strong El Niño….we derive total emissions of 692 ± 213 Tg CO2 and 3.2 ± 1.2 Tg CH4... Our fire carbon emission estimate for Sept-Oct 2015 represents the largest seen over the Maritime southeast Asia region since 1997, but still it is only a quarter of the most recent estimate for the Sept-Oct period of that El Niño year”

Cattau, Megan E, Miriam E Marlier and Ruth DeFries (2016), 'Effectiveness of Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil (RSPO) for reducing fires on oil palm concessions in Indonesia from 2012 to 2015', Environmental Research Letters (19 Oct. 2016), 11 105007, https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-9326/11/10/105007.

Huijnen V., M. J. Wooster, J. W. Kaiser, D. L. A. Gaveau, J. Flemming, M. Parrington, A. Inness, D. Murdiyarso, B. Main & M. van Weele (2016), 'Fire carbon emissions over maritime southeast Asia in 2015 largest since 1997', Scientific Reports 6, Article number: 26886 (2016), doi:10.1038/srep26886.

Page , Susan E., Florian Siegert, John O. Rieley, Hans-Dieter V. Boehm, Adi Jaya & Suwido Limin (2002), The amount of carbon released from peat and forest fires in Indonesia during 1997, Nature 420, 61-65 (7 Nov. 2002). doi:10.1038/nature01131.

The Global Peatland CO2 Picture - Peatland status and emissions in all countries of the world (draft)

APP-WATCH http://appwatch.blogspot.com

APRIL-WATCH http://aprilwatch.blogspot.com

Universiti Malaya roundtable. Fire-haze-smoke a new dimension to sustainability - is Sabah the first jurisdictional mover?

Editor's note: I attended a useful roundtable session hosted by Universiti Malaya yesterday. Thanks to Dr Helena Varkkey as convenor and the various institutes at UM who organized this.

The concern of "haze free"* appeared among KL discussants. Sustainability certification promoters note that large companies have made good pledges not to source from those with peat development. There was some questions about the limited reach of certification, and suggestions to look at better disclosure from palm oil refineries in the supply chain. The issue of smallholder incomes in the peat haze zones was also discussed, alongside frank view on what Malaysia and Asean might or might not be able to do. Economic solutions were mooted. Also, black-listing or boycotts that damage peat zone smallholder incomes (already they cannot afford more costly no-fire methods) was a concern. El Nino is considered not to be a controlling factor in the fire-haze-smoke situation anymore (it being an annual affair now). The profit motivation to develop on peat was discussed in much detail - peat zones being relatively uninhabited zones and not having native land rights claimants are prime zones for large-scale development as the land frontier closes. The need to re-wet these zones and proposals to seek alternative crops (it was highlighted that palm oil is one of the few crops that can thrive in the acidic wet conditions) for these regions was called on. Sabah's 10 year time frame to go wholly sustainable on palm oil was also noted. For Indonesia, the question of power and the decentralization of power between province and Jakarta was noted as a challenge to regulatory implementation.

* "Haze free" is also prominent with Singapore-based activists and Singapore media

Editor's notes on sustainability implications:
  • From a sustainability viewpoint, we should expect that different regions will consider differentiating themselves on the fire-haze-smoke criterion (you only need to look at the online maps offered by the likes of WRI - Global Forest Watch and ASMC to see the geographic concentration of the problem). In this regard, the Sabah move (see newslink below) could be the first of other such jurisdictional programmes. Naturally, this may challenge the idea of national and multi-national combinations to market palm oil (and even the corporate group as the basis of 100% certification, already challenged by the traceability alternatives in the processing value-chain) - but is a prime example of market forces coming into play.
  • Fire-haze-smoke (territorial basis) could be a new dimension to  sustainability that currently doesn't exist. The current pledges by refineries and PK crushers for "no peat" sourcing (basis is companies not developing on peat) is uncertain since corporate disaggregation can obfuscate the very good aim of this policy (the issue of ownership-control is far from transparent). Also, third-party sourcing of oil palm FFB remains a challenging one for certifiers and sustainability at large.
  • A jurisdictional - territorial basis is more transparent and more decisive - especially when mapped against hot-spot (haze-smoke) generating peat areas. It is an apparently logical conclusion, that palm oil mill district location will emerge as an element in decision-making. Sabah is decisively kick-starting this process.
  • Peat experts (at the UM roundtable) noted that palm oil zones north of the equator (looking good so far on the fire-haze-smoke dimension versus their south-of-the-equator counterparts) should not be complacent. So far (2H2015), they have had good rainfall (indeed, I've heard some tell of "perfect rainfall conditions"), and they need to be ready to tackle fire risks in their upcoming 2Q2016 dry season. Technical NGOs have provided the industry and buyers with rather high transparency via remote sensing data overlaid on concession maps. While these need to be properly gound-truthed, the work onus falls on the supply-chains players in the fire-haze-smoke districts.


Sabah to get CPO certified as sustainable palm oil November 5, 2015; The State Government of Sabah has decided to launch a 10-year jurisdictional program to have all crude palm oil (CPO) produced from Sabah to be certified as sustainable palm oil or CSPO.... This was decided at a cabinet meeting on October 21, this year, after taking account of all factors and oil palm being a crucial crop for Sabah’s wellbeing, Sabah Forestry Department director Datuk Sam Mannan disclosed in a statement yesterday... He said a committee would be established to implement the programme, to be headed by the Secretary of Natural Resources, with the Forestry Department providing interim secretarial support. “RSPO and Forever Sabah, an NGO, will provide technical advice, and relevant parties including NGOs, government departments, scientific organisations, etc, shall be co-opted into the committee. “It is anticipated that funding to implement the program on a step by step strategy, will come from many sources, including the Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil (RSPO), corporate donors, the oil palm sector itself, etc. The Forestry Department shall support the endeavour in kind,” said Mannan.
Read more: http://www.theborneopost.com/2015/11/05/sabah-to-get-cpo-certified-as-sustainable-palm-oil/#ixzz3qffHcZnx